Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Chipotle case analysis Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Chipotle examination - Case Study Example The organization has additionally had the option to keep up overall revenues of about 36% as showed by the outline below(Fundable, n.d). CMG’s business level system incorporates cost initiative and item separation. In accordance with a powerful corporate administration under the authority of Steve Ells, all Chipotle eateries are organization claimed as opposed to diversified. Chipotle acknowledges fax orders combined with the utilization of online business from their site, just as, an iPhone application permitting clients to find close by cafés, place arranges, and prepay with their blessing or charge card. These procedures offer dynamism, comfort, and productivity to the clients, huge deals, and benefits turnover (Fundable, n.d.). To begin with, Chipotle’s â€Å"food with integrity† mantra has been steady during the time giving new and old clients something to relate to. Second, supporting neighborhood ranchers, just as, securing animals fill in as the key open connection assets. Entrenched flexibly chains decrease coordinations in any event, during pick hours while center around new and normally raised fixings is a corresponding to a large portion of its rivals (Fundable, n.d.). Truly. On the off chance that CMG remains on the taught development path all things considered, it can in any case keep up an obligation free accounting report. Besides, avoiding mergers or diversifying may permit it to keep a solid handle on the ventures, value, just as, comes back to interest in accordance with its business systems. The best test is rivalry. For instance, from Panera Bread Company. Another is globalization. With the flood in globalization, cafés are growing up, it may lose clients, and along these lines, incomes may diminish (Fundable, n.d.). It must be creative; advertise situated, and keep up a human first culture. Along these lines, it will recapture control of the miniaturized scale and full scale financial variables. It additionally needs to contribute more on publicizing, just as, a comprehensive design. For example, CMG permits the clients to see the food being readied.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Development During Adolescence :: Human Development Teenagers Essays

Youthfulness is the formative stage among adolescence and adulthood; it for the most part alludes to a period extending from age 12 or 13 through age 19 or 21. In spite of the fact that its start is regularly offset with the start of adolescence, puberty is portrayed by mental and social stages just as by natural changes. Immaturity can be drawn out, brief, or for all intents and purposes nonexistent, depending on the kind of culture where it happens. In social orders that are straightforward, for model, the change from youth to adulthood will in general happen rather quickly, and is set apart by generally recommended section customs. to differentiate this, American and European social orders the progress time frame for youngsters has been consistently stretching in the course of recent years, offering ascend to a pre-adult subculture. Because of this drawn out transitional stage an assortment of issues and concerns explicitly connected with this age bunch have created. Analysts single out four territories that particularly address immature conduct and advancement: physiological change and development; subjective, or mental advancement; character, or character development; and parent-juvenile relations. Physiological Change: Between the ages of 9 and 15, practically all youngsters experience a fast arrangement of physiological changes, known as the youthful development spray. These hormonal changes remember an increasing speed for the body's development rate; the improvement of pubic hair; the presence of axillary, or armpit, hair about after two years. There are changes in the structure and working of the regenerative organs; the mammary organs in young ladies; and advancement of the perspiration organs, which frequently prompts a flare-up of skin inflammation. In both genders, these physiological changes happen at various occasions. This time of progress can demonstrate to be upsetting for a pre-teenager. For during this phase of life appearance is significant. A youthful kid who grows early or amazingly late can take a great deal of mocking from their friends. Be that as it may, the time at which a young lady experiences this stage and a male experiences it are extraordinary. Young ladies normally start their development spray not long after age 10. They will in general arrive at their top around the age 12, and will in general wrap up by age 14. This spray happens very nearly two years after the fact in young men. Accordingly young men experience a disturbing period where young ladies are taller and heavier than them. This ungainly period happens from ages ten and one-half to thirteen. Time isn't the main distinction in the pubescent period for young men and young ladies. In young ladies, the expansion of the bosoms is normally the main physical

Friday, August 7, 2020

Coping With a Family Member in Alcohol or Drug Rehab

Coping With a Family Member in Alcohol or Drug Rehab Addiction Coping and Recovery Methods and Support Print Coping With a Family Member in Alcohol or Drug Rehab Why Your Encouragement and Support Is Important By Buddy T facebook twitter Buddy T is an anonymous writer and founding member of the Online Al-Anon Outreach Committee with decades of experience writing about alcoholism. Learn about our editorial policy Buddy T Updated on October 22, 2019 ONOKY - Eric Audras / Getty Images More in Addiction Coping and Recovery Methods and Support Overcoming Addiction Personal Stories Alcohol Use Addictive Behaviors Drug Use Nicotine Use Having any member of your family in rehab for drugs or alcohol means that youre inevitably facing and perhaps even struggling with a lot of concerns, questions and maybe some misconceptions about how professional treatment works. Things to Keep in Mind When Your Loved One Is Getting Treatment for Addiction The following may answer some of those questions. Theyre in Good Hands First, relax and take a deep breath. Your family member is not being held against his will, and he is not locked up. Apparently, he had a substance abuse problem and has decided to get professional help. If that is the case, he is exactly where he needs to be to get the help that he needs. He is in the hands of a staff of professionals, including medical and nursing personnel, who have received specialized training and education to help people who have alcohol or drug problems. He is also surrounded by peers who are or have been in the same situation that your family member is in and will provide an additional support system for him while he begins recovery. He will receive group therapy, individual counseling, medical care, and a balanced diet. In other words, your loved one is in the hands of exactly who he needs, to get the help he needs to address his substance abuse issues. Dont Take It Personally Your family member is in a medical facility. Due to confidentiality concerns and federal privacy laws, the staff of the facility is prohibited from giving you any information about his situation. Your loved one will have to tell you himself. No, you cannot talk with him right now, but dont take it personally. In the early days of his rehab program, his contact with the outside world will be highly restricted. He wont be reading newspapers, listening to the radio or watching television, either. This is necessary so that he can concentrate on getting and staying sober with as few distractions or outside influences as possible. In the early hours and days of his treatment, his entire focus needs to be on doing what he needs to do to maintain abstinence. Your Involvement Can Be Helpful A point will come in your loved ones rehab when you are asked to become involved. Most professional alcohol and drug rehab programs include the family of the patient in his recovery process because research has shown that it reduces the risk of relapse. Usually, during the first month of his rehab, you will be invited to the treatment facility for a Family Psychoeducational Workshop, or family day. During this time, you will be able to express your concerns, questions, experiences, and feelings related to your addicted family member. The Benefits of Family Involvement Participation in the family workshop is beneficial in several ways: It allows the rehab counselors to gain input from the family, observe how the family interacts and learn more about family dynamics.It can encourage your loved one to continue with his treatment program knowing the family supports him.It offers your family member an opportunity to learn how the entire family has been affected by his addiction. What You Can Expect to Learn in Family Workshops The primary purpose of involving you in the workshop is to provide you with information about the dynamics of alcoholism and addiction, and how family members can be affected by the substance abuse of others. The goal is to lessen the familys burden, increase helpful behaviors, and decrease any unhelpful behaviors. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, the following topics are commonly addressed during the family workshop: An overview of substance abuse and dependence, including prevalence, symptoms, causes, and basic concepts.Effects of substance use disorders on the individual, family system, and individual family members, including children.Overview of recovery issues for the affected person (physical, psychological or emotional, social, family, spiritual and other) and how to measure outcomes.How the family can help, including enabling behaviors for the family to avoid and behaviors that support the addicted family members recovery.How a family member can heal from the adverse effects of involvement in a close relationship with an alcoholic or addict.Self-help programs for family members and how they can help.Common warning signs of relapse, the importance of relapse prevention planning, how the family can be involved, and how to deal with an actual relapse. Family Workshop Is Not Therapy Although there are many benefits to attending a family educational workshop while your family member is in rehab, those sessions are not therapy. Many times these workshops will bring out strong feelings among family members, and they can become emotional. But from the treatment centers point of view, these sessions focus on support and education, not therapy. The rehab programs purpose is helping the addicted family member. If you feel that you or other family members have been psychologically or emotionally affected by your loved ones alcoholism or addiction, you will need to seek additional help on your own. Consider Seeking Help for Yourself You can seek professional marriage counseling, family counseling or individual therapy for yourself. For further support, you can participate in mutual support groups, such as Al-Anon or Naranon, and your children can participate in Alateen. Many family members of alcoholics and addicts have found that joining an Al-Anon Family Group can be a positive, life-changing experience. You can also begin to educate yourself about alcoholism and addiction and how it can affect every member of the family. The more you know about the dynamics of a family affected by addiction, the more you will be able to offer your addicted family member understanding and encouragement.

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Chapter Five Of Give Me Liberty ! By Eric Foner - 1283 Words

In chapter five of Give Me Liberty! , Eric Foner asks a very interesting question of the reader. The question the author poses is â€Å"What key events sharpened the divisions between Britain and the colonists in the late 1760s and early 1770s?† (Foner 174). This question is important because it allows one to gain a better understanding of why the colonists will take the actions they do and why some of the events in the 1770s occur. Although there were many reasons that caused the divide between Britain and the North American colonists to further and become even more apparent in the late 1760s and early1770s, there seems to be several key events that had a significant impact on the relationship between the two groups. These events ranged from taxes (often called acts) placed on various items to violent uprisings. It is important to note that even before the 1760s, the relationship between the colonist in America and the government in England (as well as its presence in America ) had already been deteriorating. In fact, one of the reasons why some groups made the journey across the Atlantic was because they wanted to be left alone by Britain. In fact John Winthrop, a puritan leader who held the belief that his colony could be a â€Å"†¦ a city upon a hill†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (par. 14) if not interfered with by the English government. This belief would eventually morph into a disdain for England, its key political figure(s), and its government. This attitude would be carried on throughout the colonialShow MoreRelatedvoices of freedom paper1432 Words   |  6 PagesIn chapter, five there are several points. However the biggest points are if the colonists should be independent from Britain, the colonists reaction to the laws and acts made by the British Empire, and the rights of the colonists. These points summarize the contents of chapter five of â€Å"Voices of Freedom† and â€Å"Give Me Liberty†. The articles in voices of freedom that are ar guing the primary points the first article is the â€Å"Virginia Resolutions on the Stamp Act (1765)†. This article is about Virginia’sRead MoreSlave Culture And Resistance Of Slavery Essay705 Words   |  3 PagesSlave Culture and Resistance to Slavery In chapter eleven, The Peculiar Institution: Slave Culture and Resistance to Slavery written by Eric Foner the author of Give me liberty! An American History published in 2012 briefly describes the slave culture and how it was. Included will be a piece on Incidents in the life of a slave girl, written by herself in 1861. Courtesy of University of Michigan Library, Making of America. In the Resistance to Slavery Foner will demonstrate how individuals both slavesRead MoreThe Outcomes Of The Revolutionary War1911 Words   |  8 Pages The outcomes of the Revolutionary war paved the way towards an expansion of territory sought out to respect civil liberties by outlawing slavery , reforming the education platform and is considered one of the most important legislative acts of the confederation congress. Thomas Jefferson was a key player as he created a vision with an empire based on principles novel at the time. On July 13, 1787 the Northwest Ordinance came into place, a new legislati on which expanded the original 13 states westwardRead MoreEssay Review Questions4116 Words   |  17 PagesGive Me Liberty! Eric Foner Focus Questions Chapter One: -What impelled European explorers to look west across the Atlantic? The European conquest of America began as an offshoot of the quest for a sea route to India, China, and the islands of the East Indies, the source of the silk, tea, spices, porcelain, and other luxury goods on which international trade in the early modern era centered. Profit and piety-the desire to eliminate Islamic middlemen and win control of the lucrative tradeRead MoreUrban Sprawl Essay3380 Words   |  14 Pages1950s and the 1960s. While talking about the society and government during Lyndon Johnson’s presidency, Eric Foner wrote, â€Å"with deindustrialization urban decay affecting numerous families and most suburbs still being off-limits to non-whites, the median wealth of white households remained ten times greater than that of blacks, and nearly a quarter of all black children still lived in poverty† (Chapter 25). While today the situation may not be as serious, some racial and class separation still existsRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words   |  656 PagesJohn McMillian and Paul Buhle, eds., The New Left Revisited David M. Scobey, Empire City: The Making and Meaning of the New York City Landscape Gerda Lerner, Fireweed: A Political Autobiography Allida M. Black, ed., Modern American Queer History Eric Sandweiss, St. Louis: The Evolution of an American Urban Landscape Sam Wineburg, Historical Thinking and Other Unnatural Acts: Charting the Future of Teaching the Past Sharon Hartman Strom, Political Woman: Florence Luscomb and the Legacy of Radical

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Effects Of Stress On Children Suffering Of Posttraumatic...

Section B: 1. Considering the trauma Tony had faced at 8 years old and especially taking into consideration the injuries of his family that occurred from their house burning down we can relate it to the difficulties Tony is now facing. Of this incident, Tony can no longer remain on his own, as he tends to be irritable and hyperactive as well as experiencing difficulty during the night as it often contains frightening nightmares of being trapped. Therefore, this has the result to Tony refusing to sleep on his own he must be accompanied by both parents. However, based on these emotional difficulties Tony has been experiencing he is experiencing a Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). In reference to his terrifying nightmares of feeling†¦show more content†¦In regards, of Tony’s emotional difficulty in terms of suffering from PTSD this can contribute to further emotional or psychiatric difficulties. Firstly, this can result of one to also experience a generalized anxiety which r elies on a heavy concern of worrying of events and activities which could trigger for Tony as he already can not tolerate being alone. Next, can also contribute to separation anxiety, which tends to describe youths who suffer from a significant amount of anxiety when separating from a parent as noticed in Tony’s circumstance he can’t sleep without both parents being present. Also, another factor could result of panic which consist of a sense of fear or terror (Wicks-Nelson Israel, 2013). In association to Tony, we already witness horrifying nightmares about being trapped. However, depression is often as well an associated symptom, which consist of a person undergoing a very dark moment conflicting ones ability of functioning which can be highly reflected upon Tony as he has been referred to as not doing well. Lastly, ADHD is also a concern that consist of one who to have difficulty sustaining focus, and leading one to be fidgety where this has been apparent in Tony a s he has been

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

City of Kelsey Budgeting Free Essays

Tiera Bristol November 19, 2012 Policing in Kelsey: Budget Report Professor Charles McClelland Abstract Working as the budget director for the mayor of the city of Kelsey, we have recently been getting numerous complaints from the citizens about an increase in crime and also an issue of the public demanding for more police officers. With the population of the city growing daily, the increase of crime is continuing to progress as well. The mayor has informed us that this past year is the highest increase in crime in the city’s history, that the federal government has reduced the federal pass-through money for the state and that the budgeting group needs to revamp the budget for the coming year. We will write a custom essay sample on City of Kelsey Budgeting or any similar topic only for you Order Now Within this document as the Budget officer, we will take a close look at the present budget to determine the changes that need to be made in order to come up with a solution that is politically feasible. In doing so we will examine numerous things in depth which includes looking at how the changes affect the fiscal cycle of your budgeting, how the preparation, execution, and evaluation of the budgeting cycle would change, our budgeting approach based on the changes and the reasons, differences of the chosen budgeting approach from those not used, a plan to address the crime issue, and lastly a summary of the cost-benefit analysis of your plan. Main According to Apollo Group (2007), â€Å"Kelsey is nestled in the hills of the Northwest Valley. With a population of 625,000 Kelsey offers the amenities of the big city, but still retains its small town charm† (para. 1). In addition to the limited budget, there has been a recent budgetary reform at the federal level, which has put additional pressure on local police agencies to use the federal money before it expires. The state Chiefs of Police Association is lobbying the state for a 15% public safety tax for a temporary 3-year period in order to make up the deficit. The state legislature and local governments are wary of adding any additional new taxes on citizens. In addition, the state’s Sierra Club organization is putting pressure on state and local government to hire less police officers, build more prisons, and develop the state’s infrastructure. There are different types of budgeting that businesses typically use and those include Operating budgets, Capital Budgets and there are many subtypes that exist because a budget can also be created for special events, the recruitment and retention of new staff, and to manage the advertising expenses and return on investments for a business (Demand Media, 1999-2012). According to Demand Media (1999-2012), â€Å"An operating budget outlines the total operating expenses and income for the organization, typically for the period of a fiscal year. Capital budgets evaluate the investments and assets of the business, and a cash budget shows the predicted cash flow in and out of the business over a period of time† (para. 2 ). According to the Cost-Benefit Analysis (2012), â€Å"Capital budgeting has at its core the tool of cost-benefit analysis; it merely extends the basic form into a multi-period analysis, with consideration of the time value of money. In this context, a new product, venture, or investment is evaluated on a start-to-finish basis, with care taken to capture all the impacts on the company, both cost and benefits. When these inputs and outputs are quantified by year, they can then be discounted to present value to determine the net present value of the opportunity at the time of the decision† (â€Å"Cost-Benefit Analysis,† 2012). In taking steps to resolve these issues in the city of Kelsey and coming up with a solution that is politically feasible we will use the cost-benefit analysis which is the process of determining costs and benefits for programs, decisions, and projects and making a true yet equal determination for an end result. This process in my opinion is almost like a prediction for what the end result will look like†¦ â€Å"In governmental planning and budgeting, the attempt to measure the social benefits of a proposed project in monetary terms and compare them with its costs† (â€Å"Cost-Benefit Analysis,† 2012). When it comes to looking at different Business decisions that would use the cost-benefit analysis, the reasoning could be, but not limited to â€Å"whether or not to add employees, introduce a new technology, purchase equipment, change vendors, implement new procedures, and remodel or relocate facilities† (â€Å"Cost-Benefit Analysis,† 2012). According to the Cost-Benefit Analysis (2012), â€Å"Cost-benefit analysis is the exercise of evaluating an action’s consequences by weighing the pluses, or benefits, against the minuses, or costs. It is the fundamental assessment behind virtually every business decision, due to the simple fact that business managers do not want to spend money unless the resulting benefits are expected to exceed the costs. As companies increasingly seek to cut costs and improve productivity, cost-benefit analysis has become a valuable tool for evaluating a wide range of business opportunities, such as major purchases, organizational changes, and expansions† (â€Å"Cost-Benefit Analysis,† 2012). In coming up with a plan that demonstrates how the preparation, execution and evaluation of the budgeting cycle would change would look like this, according to the Cost-Benefit Analysis (2012), â€Å"A formal cost-benefit analysis is a multi-step process which includes a preliminary survey, a feasibility study, and a final report. At the conclusion of each step, the party responsible for performing the analysis can decide whether continuing on to the next step is warranted. The preliminary survey is an initial evaluation that involves gathering information on both the opportunity and the existing situation. The feasibility study involves completing the information gathering as needed and evaluating the data to gauge the short- and long-term impact of the opportunity. Finally, the formal cost-benefit analysis report should provide decision makers with all the pertinent information they need to take appropriate action on the opportunity. It should include an executive summary and introduction; information about the scope, purpose, and methodology of the study; recommendations, along with factual justification; and factors concerning implementation† (â€Å"Cost-Benefit Analysis,† 2012). When it comes to coming up with ideas to address the issue of crime there are no set strategy that can be deemed perfect. Instead it is a good idea to proactive, alert and daily trying to come up with new ideas to address this issue. Crime is on the rise and everyday criminals are getting smarter and coming up with new tactics and ways for committing crimes, therefore it is critical for law enforcement, as a unit to put just as much time and effort, if not more, in coming up with new/advanced approaches, tactics, plans and policies to deter crime. Through research I found that Governor Snyder’s plan to fight crime in the State of Michigan to very interesting. After examining the Governor’s plan we feel that it would also be a good idea to look at some of the same things within the city of Kelsey around coming up with a plan to address the current crime issues. According to Michigan Radio Newsroom (2012), â€Å"Secure Cities Partnership (provide local assistance and coordinate teams of local, state and federal law enforcement officers to direct patrols and provide investigative resources), Fire and first responders (forming an advisory council that will recommend ways to provide better emergency services statewide with a long-term, sustainable cost model), Prosecutorial support (investment for prosecutorial support in distressed cities), Mental health courts (They can require individuals to comply with treatment, which may keep them from committing crimes), Drug courts (Drug treatment courts address the revolving-door cycle in which drug and alcohol offenders move in and out of the justice system; a high-risk, high-need drug court initiative that expands drug court programming), Human trafficking (protects victims and goes after the individuals who profit from this crime), New paths for young people (help teens from urban areas realize tha t promising opportunities exist), Removing abandoned buildings (Abandoned buildings often are havens for illegal activity. orbid individuals with unpaid taxes or who own blighted properties from buying any more property at auction), Truancy (placing more social workers within public schools)† (para. 3). Conclusion Throughout this document we have analyzed ways to come up with a solution that is politically feasible in making corrections to the budget. Using the cost-benefit analysis tool is essential and highly beneficial in determining what will stay and what organizations will be dismissed. We have looked at the Governor of Michigan plan and approach to address the crime issues and of those mentioned and described, would be necessary to analysis within the city of Kelsey. Reference Apollo Group. (2007). The City of Kelsey. Retrieved from How to cite City of Kelsey Budgeting, Essay examples

Friday, May 1, 2020

Competitive Advantage and Strategic Information System free essay sample

Business organization with emphasize on information systems is try to gathering desirable information for decision making. Because of comprehensive change in business background and emerge of computers and internet, the business structure and needed information had change, the competitiveness as a major factor for life of organizations in information edge is preyed of information technology challenges. In this article we have reviewed in the literature of information systems and discussed the concepts of information system as a strategic tool. Keywords: Strategic information systems, Information technology, Information sciences, Decision support systems, Competitive advantages 1. Introduction The potential usefulness of different kinds of Information System (IS) for environmental management is well recognized (Diez et al, 2009). Perhaps we can say advances in information provision have led organizations to attempt to develop IS or information technology (IT) strategies which interrelate with their business strategies and which together support corporate missions (Rogerson et al, 1994). The three general types of IS that are developed and in general use are financial systems, operational systems, and strategic systems. Well-directed financial systems and operational systems may well become the strategic systems for a particular organization. Relationship between IS functions and corporate strategy was not of much interest to top management of firms in recent years and so many problems because of failure in achieving strategies and that disconnecting for organizations go to existence. Modern organizations are increasingly seen as knowledge-based enterprises in which proactive knowledge management is important for competitiveness (Holsapple et al, 2000). One of the hot research topics in new decades is research about strategic IS and its aspects and Project management IS has changed considerably over the last decade (Ahlemann, 2009). One of the major factors in competitive environment is knowledge management and companies for achieving the competitive advantages should concentrate in its IS. IS has a vital role in business operation and financial and non-financial aspect such as decision making as a big role of management. ISs were thought to be synonymous with corporate data processing and treated as some back-room operation in support of day-to-day mundane tasks (Rockart, 1979). Nevertheless, in the 80’s and 90’s, there has been a growing realization of the need to make ISs of strategic importance to an organization. Strategic SISs are systems that support or shape a business unit’s competitive strategy (Callon, 1996, and Neumann, 1994). Strategic ISs are touted throughout the trade press and the academic literature as the way to achieve the greatest benefits from an investment in new IT (Bajjaly, 1998). An SIS is characterized by its ability to significantly change the manner in which business is conducted, in order to give the firm strategic advantage (Turban et al, 2006). In literature we have many definitions for strategic IS such as: The IS to support or change enterprises strategy (Wiseman, 1985). But clear definition is a system that helps companies change or otherwise alter their business strategy and/or structure. It is typically utilized to streamline and quicken the reaction time to environmental changes and aid it in achieving a competitive advantage. Key features of the Strategic ISs are the following: 58 ISSN 1833-3850 E-ISSN 1833-8119 www. ccsenet. org/ijbm International Journal of Business and Management Vol. 5, No. 7; July 2010 1) Decision support systems that enable to develop a strategic approach to align IS or IT with an organizations business strategies 2) Primarily Enterprise resource planning solutions that integrate/link the business processes to meet the ent erprise objectives for the optimization of the enterprise resources 3) Database systems with the data mining capabilities to make the best use of available corporate information for marketing, production, promotion and innovation. The SIS systems also facilitate identification of the data collection strategies to help optimize database marketing opportunities. 4) The real-time ISs that intend to maintain a rapid-response and the quality indicators. Any IS that a change the goals, processes, products, or environmental relationships to help an organization gain a competitive advantage or reduce a competitive disadvantage is a strategic IS (Turban, 2006). According to Porter (1985) a competitive strategy is a broad-based formula for how a business is going to compete, what its goals should be, and what plans and policies will be required to carry out those goals. Turban et al (2006) believes that any organization seeks a competitive advantage in their industries in other word an advantage over competitors in some measure such as cost, quality, or speed. Competitive advantage is at the core of a firm’s success or failure (Porter and Millar, 1985, and Porter, 1996); such advantage seeks to lead to control of the market and to larger-than-average profits. Some of the more common ways of thinking about gaining competitive advantage are: 1. Deliver a product or a service at a lower cost. This does not necessarily mean the lowest cost, but simply a cost related to the quality of the product or service that will be both attractive in the marketplace and will yield sufficient return on investment. 2. Deliver a product or service that us differentiated. Differentiation means the addition of unique features to a product or service that are competitive attractive in the market. 3. Focus on a specific market segment. The idea is to identify and create market niches that have not been adequately filled. IT is frequently able to provide the capabilities of defining, expanding, and filling a particular niche or segment. The application would be quite specific to the industry. 4. Innovation. Develop products or services through the use of computers that are new and appreciably from other available offerings. A strategic IS helps an organization gain a competitive advantage through its contribution to the strategic goals of an organization and/or its ability to significantly increase performance and productivity. Turban et al (2006) believes an SIS enables companies to gain competitive advantage and to benefit greatly at the expense of those that are subject to competitive disadvantage. They said Competitive advantage in the digital economy is even more important than in the old economy. For some businesses the impact of the digital economy is revolutionary. Frequent changes in technologies and markets and the appearance of new business models can introduce radical changes in industry structure (Deise et al. , 2000) and the nature of competition can shift rapidly (Afuah and Tucci, 2003, and Choi and Whinston, 2000). At the same time, the digital economy has not changed the core business of most firms. For most businesses, Internet technologies simply offer the tools, sometimes very powerful tools, which can increase their success through their traditional sources of competitive advantage—be that low cost, excellent customer service, or superior supply chain management. Bithos (2001) believe that for the overwhelming majority of businesses, the first step to competitive advantage in the digital economy are to ask and answer the question, â€Å"Where, given my industry and position, does my competitive advantage come from? † Then the follow-up question, â€Å"How can IT, especially the Internet, help my business? will be easier to answer. As Figure. 1 shows, there were five business pressures on the company. Rosenbluth’s strategic response was (1) to eliminate the retailing activities, which were most likely to be impacted by the pressures, and (2) to change the revenue model from commission-based to fee-for-service-based. Such strategy required extensive IT su pport (Turban et al, 2006). At first, strategic information systems were considered to be outwardly focused—that is, aimed at increasing direct competition in an industry and visible to all. For example, strategic systems have been used to provide new services to customers and/or suppliers, to increase customer switching costs, and to lock in suppliers, all with the specific objective of achieving better results than one’s competitors. But since the late 1980s, strategic systems have also been viewed inwardly: They are focused on enhancing the competitive position of the firm by Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education 159 www. ccsenet. org/ijbm International Journal of Business and Management Vol. 5, No. 7; July 2010 ncreasing employees’ productivity, streamlining business processes, and making better decisions (Turban et al, 2006). In the next part of this article we consider the role of the IT in strategic management. As Bhatnagar (2006) believes the advances in IT have affected the lives of most of the human beings in their day-to day lives, but the strategic IS may deliver a product or service that is at a lower cost, that is differentiate d, that focuses on a particular market segment, or is innovative. With the passage of time, the technology has evolved immensely and so have the opportunities. IT is being used in the business activities for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of the people and the business on the whole. The increasing demand of IS and IT has made the management of the more and more complex and difficult. SISs are different from other comparable systems as: They change the way the firm competes. They have an external (outward looking) focus. They are associated with higher project risk. They are innovative (and not easily copied). 2. The Role of IT in Strategic Management A strategic IS has been defined as the information system to support or change enterprises strategy. Strategic management is the technique that an organization can plans the strategy of its future operations; in the other word a SIS is a system to manage information and assist in strategic decision making. The term strategic points to the long-term nature of this mapping exercise and to the large magnitude of advantage the exercise is expected to give an organization (Turban 2006). Four critical factors in developing and strategic IS are Initiation, data collection, strategy formulation and short-term development. These factors are used to prioritize proposed ISs, so that those giving competitive advantage to the organization can be highlighted for immediate development (Karababas et al, 1994). IT contributes to strategic management in many ways (for addition information see Kemerer, 1997, and Callon, 1996). Turban et al (2006) introduce these eight factors; we show these eight in figure. 2: 1. Innovative applications. IT creates innovative applications that provide direct strategic advantage to organizations. For example, Federal Express was the first company in its industry to use IT for tracking the location of every package in its system. Next, FedEx was the first company to make this database accessible to its customers over the Internet. FedEx has gone on to provide e-fulfillment solutions based on IT and is even writing software for this purpose (Bhise et al. , 2000). 2. Competitive weapons. ISs themselves have long been recognized as a competitive weapon (Ives and Learmouth, 1984, and Callon, 1996). Michael Dell, founder of Dell Computer, puts it bluntly: â€Å"The Internet is like a weapon sitting on the table, ready to be picked up by either you or your competitors†. . Changes in processes. IT supports changes in business processes that translate to strategic advantage (Davenport, 1993). For example, Berri is Australia’s largest manufacturer and distributor of fruit juice products. The principal goal of its enterprise resource planning system implementation was â€Å"to turn its branch-based business into a national organization with a single set of unified business processes† in order to ac hieve millions of dollars in cost-savings (J. D. Edwards, 2002a). Other ways in which IT can change business processes include better control over remote stores or offices by providing speedy communication tools, streamlined product design time with computer-aided engineering tools, and better decision-making processes by providing managers with timely information reports. 4. Links with business partners. IT links a company with its business partners effectively and efficiently. For example, Rosenbluth’s Global Distribution Network allows it to connect agents, customers, and travel service providers around the globe, an innovation that allowed it to broaden its marketing range (Clemons and Hann, 1999). . Cost reductions. IT enables companies to reduce costs. For example, a Booz- Allen Hamilton study found that: a traditional bank transaction costs $1. 07, whereas the same transaction over the Web costs about 1 cent; a traditional airline ticket costs $8 to process, an e-ticket costs $1 (ibm. com/ partnerworld/pwhome. nsf/vAssetsLookup/ad2. pdf/$file/ad2. pdf). In the customer service area, a customer call handled by a live agent costs $33, but an intelligent agent can handle the same request for less than $2 (Schwartz, 2000). . Relationships with suppliers and customers. IT can be used to lock in suppliers and customers, or to build in switching costs (making it more difficult for suppliers or customers to switch to competitors). 160 ISSN 1833-3850 E-ISSN 1833-8119 www. ccsenet. org/ijbm International Journal of Business and Management Vol. 5, No. 7; July 2010 7. New products. A firm can leverage its investment in IT to create new products that are in demand in the marketplace. Acco rding to Vandenbosch and Dawar (2002, p. 8), â€Å"The redefinition of ICI’s role not only generated much higher margins for the business, it also gave ICI a much more defensible competitive position†. 8. Competitive intelligence. IT provides competitive (business) intelligence by collecting and analyzing information about products, markets, competitors, and environmental changes (Guimaraes and Armstrong, 1997). Turban et al, (2006) believe in battle, information about one’s competitors can mean the difference between winning and losing a battle in business many companies continuously monitor the activities of their competitors to acquire competitive intelligence. Such information-gathering drives business performance by increasing market knowledge, improving knowledge management, and raising the quality of strategic planning; Comcowich (2002) considered the following uses of competitive intelligence: A sporting goods company found an activist group planning a demonstration and boycott months in advance, enabling the company to implement a counter strategy. Within days of launch, a software firm found dissatisfaction with specific product features, enabling the technicians to write a â€Å"patch† that fixed the problem within days instead of the months normally required to obtain customer feedback and implement software fixes. A packaging company was able to determine the location, size, and production capacity for a new plant being built by a competitor. The otherwise well protected information was found by an automated monitoring service in building permit documents within the Web site of the town where the new plant was being built . A telecommunications company uncovered a competitor’s legislative strategy, enabling the company to gain an upper hand in a state-by-state lobbying battle. The creative team embarking on development of a new video game used the Internet to identify cutting-edge product attributes that game-players prefer. The intensive research uncovered three key â€Å"gotta haves† that were not identified in focus groups and had not been included in the original design specification. Desouza believes (2001) that, Competitive intelligence can be done with technologies such as optical character recognition, intelligent agents and especially the Internet. The Internet is a company’s most important tool to support competitive intelligence (Teo, 2000, Bell and Harari, 2000, and Buchwitz, 2002). Power and Sharda (1997) proposed a framework in which the Internet capabilities are shown to provide information for strategic decisions. According to the framework, shown in Figure. 3 the external information required (upper left) and the methods of acquiring information (upper right) can be supported by Internet tools for communication, searching, browsing and information retrieval. Power and Sharda (1997) emphasize the search capability of the various tools of the Internet. Using these tools an organization can implement specific search strategies. Turban et al, (2006) believe that with respect to this terms, it’s not enough just to gather information on a competitor. Analyzing and interpreting the information is as important as collecting it. They suggest that one can use IT tools ranging from intelligent agents to data mining. Another, more sinister, aspect of competitive intelligence is industrial espionage. Industrial espionage is considered to be unethical and usually illegal. 3. Strategies for Competitive Advantage As Howard et al, (1999) believed if ISs design and strategy development are addressed simultaneously, Strategic competitive advantage can be gained (Howard et al, 1999). Porter’s model identifies the forces that influence competitive advantage in the marketplace. Of greater interest to most managers is the development of a strategy aimed at establishing a profitable and sustainable position against these five forces (Turban et al, 2006). To establish such a position, a company needs to develop a strategy of performing activities differently from a competitor. Porter (1985) proposed cost leadership, differentiation, and niche strategies. Additional strategies have been proposed by other strategic-management authors (e. g. , Neumann, 1994; Wiseman, 1988; Frenzel, 1996). Turban et al, (2006) sited 12 strategies for competitive advantage here and we present again turbans literature. Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education 161 www. ccsenet. org/ijbm International Journal of Business and Management Vol. 5, No. 7; July 2010 1. Cost leadership strategy: Produce products and/or services at the lowest cost in the industry. A firm achieves cost leadership in its industry by thrifty buying practices, efficient business processes, forcing up the prices paid by competitors, and helping customers or suppliers reduce their costs. 2. Differentiation strategy: Offer different products, services, or product features. By offering different, â€Å"better† products companies can charge higher prices; sell more products, or both. 3. Niche strategy: Select a narrow-scope segment (niche market) and be the best in quality, speed, or cost in that market. 4. Growth strategy: Increase market share, acquire more customers, or sell more products. Such a strategy strengthens a company and increases profitability in the long run. Web-based selling can facilitate growth by creating new marketing channels, such as electronic auctions. 5. Alliance strategy: Work with business partners in partnerships, alliances, joint ventures, or virtual companies. This strategy creates synergy, allows companies to concentrate on their core business, and provides opportunities for growth. 6. Innovation strategy: Introduce new products and services, put new features in existing products and services, or develop new ways to produce them. Innovation is similar to differentiation except that the impact is much more dramatic. Differentiation â€Å"tweaks† existing products and services to offer the customer something special and different. Innovation implies something so new and different that it changes the nature of the industry. 7. Operational effectiveness strategy: Improve the manner in which internal business processes are executed so that a firm performs similar activities better than rivals (Porter, 1996). Such improvements increase employee and customer satisfaction, quality, and productivity while decreasing time to market. Improved decision making and management activities also contribute to improved efficiency. 8. Customer-orientation strategy: Concentrate on making customers happy. Strong competition and the realization that the customer is king (queen) is the basis of this strategy. Web-based systems that support customer relationship management are especially effective in this area because they can provide a personalized, one-to-one relationship with each customer. 9. Time strategy: Treat time as a resource, then manage it and use it to the firm’s advantage. Time is money,† â€Å"Internet time† (i. e. , three months on the Internet is like a year in real time), first-mover advantage, just-in-time delivery or manufacturing, competing in time (Keen, 1988), and other time-based competitive concepts emphasize the importance of time as an asset and a source of competitive advantage. One of the driving forces behind time as a competitive strategy is the need for firms to be immediatel y responsive to customers, markets, and changing market conditions. A second factor is the time-to-market race. By introducing innovative products or using IT to provide exceptional service, companies can create barriers to entry from new entrants. 10. Lock in customers or suppliers strategy: Encourage customers or suppliers to stay with you rather than going to competitors. Locking in customers has the effect of reducing their bargaining power. 11. Increase switching costs strategy: Discourage customers or suppliers from going to competitors for economic reasons. 4. SIS, competitive advantages, value chain and internet effects Strategic systems are those ISs that may be used gaining competitive advantage. Michael Porter’s competitive forces model is one of the most popular framework for analyzing competitiveness (Porter, 1985). Porter’s theories on competitive advantage are not tied to ISs, but are used by others to involve information services technologies. Porter says that there are two central questions in competitive strategy: 1. 2. How structurally attractive is the industry? What is the firm’s relative position in the industry? Both of these questions are dynamic, and neither is sufficient alone to guide strategic choices and can be influenced by competitor behavior, and both can be shaped by a firm’s actions. Porter’s model give techniques for getting a handle on the possible average profitability of an industry over time. The analysis of these forces is the base for estimating a firm’s relative position and competitive advantage. Accrding to porter(1985) the principal types of competitive advantage are low cost producer, differentiation, and focus. The firm has a competitive advantage if it is able to deliver its product or service at a lower cost than its 162 ISSN 1833-3850 E-ISSN 1833-8119 www. ccsenet. org/ijbm International Journal of Business and Management Vol. 5, No. 7; July 2010 competitors. If the quality of its product is satisfactory, this will translate into higher margins and higher returns. Another advantage is gained if the firm is able to differentiate itself in some way. Differentiation leads to offering something that is both unique and is desired, and translates into a premium price. Again, this will lead to higher margins and superior performance. According to Turban et al, (2006), porters model has been used to develop strategies for companies to increase their competitive edge and it also demonstrates how IT can enhance the competitiveness of corporations. It seems that two types of competitive advantage, lower cost and differentiation, are mutually exclusive. Another point of Porter’s is that competitive advantage is gained through a strategy bases on scope. It is necessary to look at the breadth of a firm’s activities, and narrow the competitive scope to gain focus in either an industry segment, a geographic area, a customer type, and so on. Competitive advantage is most readily gained by defining the competitive scope in which the firm is operating, and concentrating on it. The concept of value chain As Recklies (2001) said, the term Value Chain was used by Michael Porter (1985). The value chain analysis describes the activities the organization performs and links them to the organizations competitive position. He believes: Value chain analysis describes the activities within and around an organization, and relates them to an analysis of the competitive strength of the organization. Therefore, it evaluates which value each particular activity adds to the organizations products or services. This idea was built upon the insight that an organization is more than a random compilation of machinery, equipment, people and money. Only if these things are arranged into systems and systematic activates it will become possible to produce something for which customers are willing to pay a price. Porter argues that the ability to perform particular activities and to manage the linkages between these activities is a source of competitive advantage (Recklies, 2001) . Porter (1985) distinguishes between primary activities and support activities. Primary activities are directly concerned with the creation or delivery of a product or service. They can be grouped into five main areas: inbound logistics, operations, outbound logistics, marketing and sales, and service. Each of these primary activities is linked to support activities which help to improve their effectiveness or efficiency. There are four main areas of support activities: procurement, technology development (including RD), human resource management, and infrastructure (systems for planning, finance, quality, information management etc. ). The Value Chain framework of Michael Porter is a model that helps to analyze specific activities through which firms can create value and competitive advantage. The goal of Primary Value Chain activities is to create value that exceeds the cost of providing the product or service, thus generating a profit margin. †¢ Inbound logistics include the receiving, warehousing, and inventory control of input materials. †¢Operations are the value-creating activities that transform the inputs into the final product. †¢Outbound logistics are the activities required to get the finished product to the customer, including warehousing, order fulfillment, etc. Marketing Sales are those activities associated with getting buyers to purchase the product, including channel selection, advertising, pricing, etc. †¢Service activities are those that maintain and enhance the products value including customer support, repair services, etc. Any or all of these primary activities may be vital in developing a competitive advantage. The primary value chain activities described above are facilitated by support activities. Porter identified four generic categories of support activities, the details of which are industry-specific. Procurement the function of purchasing the raw materials and other inputs used in the value-creating activities. †¢Technology Development includes research and development, process automation, and other technology development used to support the value-chain activities. †¢Human Resource Management the activities associated with recruiting, development, and compensation of employees. †¢Firm Infrastructure includes activities such as finance, legal, quality management, etc. Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education 163 www. ccsenet. org/ijbm International Journal of Business and Management Vol. 5, No. 7; July 2010 Support activities often are viewed as overhead, but some firms successfully have used them to develop a competitive advantage, for example, to develop a cost advantage through innovative management of ISs (porter, 1985) IT is also pervasive throughout all parts of the value chain. Porters model recognizes five major forces that could endanger a company’s position in a given industry. These forces are and in the figure 4 Porter’s five forces model, including the major determinant of each force presented: 1. The threat of entry of new competitors 2. The bargaining power of suppliers 3. The bargaining power of customers (buyers) 4. The threat of substitute products or services 5. The rivalry among existing firms in the industry A. Cost and Competitive Advantage: Cost leadership is one of Porter’s two types of competitive advantage. The cost leader delivers a product of acceptable quality at the lowest possible cost. It attempts to open up a significant and sustainable cost gap over all other competitors. The cost advantage is achieved through superior position in relation to the key cost drivers. Cost leadership translates into above-average profits if the cost leader can command the average prices in the industry. On the other hand, cost leaders must maintain quality that is close to, or equal to, that of the competition. Achieving cost leadership usually requires trade-offs with differentiation. The two are usually incompatible. To sustain cost advantage, Porter gives a number of cost drivers which must be understood in detail because the sustainability of cost advantage in an activity depends on the cost drivers of that activity. Some of the cost drivers which must be analyzed, understood, and controlled are: Scale. The appropriate type of scale must be found. Policies must be set to reinforce economies of scale in scale-sensitive activities. Learning. The learning curve must be understood and managed. As the organization tries to learn from competitors, it must strive to keep its own learning proprietary. Capacity Utilization. Cost can be controlled by the leveling of throughput. Linkages. Linkages should be exploited within the value chain. Work with suppliers and channels can reduce costs. Interrelationships. Shared activities can reduce costs. Integration. The possibilities for integration or de-integration should be examined systematically. Timing. If the advantages of being the firs mover or a late mover are understood, they can be exploited. Policies. Policies that enhance the low-cost position or differentiation should be emphasized. Location. When viewed as a whole, the location of individual activities can be optimized. Institutional Factors. Institutional factors should be examined to see whether their change may be helpful. Porter gives five steps to achieving cost leadership: Identify the appropriate value chain and assign costs and assets to it. Identify the cost drivers of each value activity and see how they interact. Determine the relative costs of competitors and the sources of cost differences. 1. 2. Develop a strategy to lower relative cost position through controlling cost drivers or reconfiguring the value chain. Test the cost reduction strategy for sustainability. B. Differentiation Advantage. Differentiation is the second of Porter’s two types of competitive advantage. In the differentiation strategy, one or more characteristics that are widely value by buyers are selected. The purpose is to achieve and sustain performance that is superior to any competitor in satisfying those buyer needs. A differentiator selectively adds costs in areas that are important to the buyer. Thus, successful differentiation leads to premium prices, and these lead to above-average profitably if there is approximate cost parity. To achieve this, efficient forms of differentiation must be picked, and costs must be reduced in areas that are irrelevant to the buyer needs. ISSN 1833-3850 E-ISSN 1833-8119 164 www. ccsenet. org/ijbm International Journal of Business and Management Vol. 5, No. 7; July 2010 C. Internet and Impact on Competition: According to turban et al (2006), because the Internet has changed the nature of doing business, it has also changed the nature of competition. Porter himself argues that the Internet doesn’t change the model, but that it is only another tool to be used in seeking competitive advantage. In his words, â€Å"The Internet per se will rarely be a competitive advantage. Many of the companies that succeed will be the ones that use the Internet as a complement to traditional ways of competing, not those that set their Internet initiatives apart from their established operations† (Porter, 2001, p. 4). Porter (2001) and Harmon et al. (2001) present some ways the Internet influences competition in the five factors: 1. The threat of new entrants. 2. The bargaining power of suppliers. 3. The bargaining power of customers (buyers). 4. The threat of substitute products or services. 5. The rivalry among existing firms in the industry. Porter conclud es that the overall impact of the Internet is to increase competition, which negatively impacts profitability. According to Porter, â€Å"The great paradox of the Internet is that its very benefits—making information widely available; reducing the difficulty of purchasing, marketing, and distribution; allowing buyers and sellers to find and transact business with one another more easily—also make it more difficult for companies to capture those benefits as profits† (2001, p. 66). 5. Implementing and sustaining SIS The major problem that companies now face is how to sustain their competitive advantage. Implementing strategic ISs may be a complex undertaking due to the magnitude and the complex nature of the systems (turban et al, 2006). Strategic ISs are designed to establish a profitable and sustainable position against the forces that determine industry competition. A sustainable strategic advantage is a strategic advantage that can be maintained for some length of time. During the period from 1970 through the late 1990s, businesses implemented numerous successful IT-based strategic systems that lasted many years. These SISs enabled the companies that owned them to enjoy a competitive advantage for several years before competitors imitated their systems (Turban et al, 2006). Ross et al. 1996) suggest the three IT assets— people, technology, and â€Å"shared† risk and responsibility—as a way to develop sustainable competitiveness. Porter (1996) expanded his classic competitive forces model to include strategies such as growth and internal efficiency that facilitate sustainability. Turban et al, (2006) suggest some way for accomplish competitive sustainability with the help of IT. 1. Using inwar d systems that are not visible to competitors. 2. If a company uses outward systems to sustain competitive advantage, one way to protect those systems is to patent them. 3. Developing a comprehensive, innovative, and expensive system that is very difficult to duplicate. 4. Using modified approach. 6. Conclusion Because information has emerged as an agent of integration and the enabler of new competitiveness for today’s enterprise in the global marketplace and because strategic IS supports or shapes competitive strategies, the concepts of ISs is so important, IT can be used to support a variety of strategic objectives, including creation of innovative applications, changes in business processes, links with business partners, reduction of costs, acquiring competitive intelligence, and others. In this article we consider the opinion of some of ISs scientists and reviewed the literature of strategic ISs, competitive advantage and porters model for competitive situations. According to above subject we can say one of the important factors in new challengeable business environment is emphasis on strategic ISs and this is no ended research topic. We believe for achieving successfulness, organizations must establish all aspects of their planning structures based on strategic planning and otherwise only word that can communicative of results is failure. Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education 65 www. ccsenet. org/ijbm International Journal of Business and Management.